J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. YAG laser irradiation on musculoskeletal back pain. NIR penetration in the human brain is subject to attenuation by multiple tissues skin, skull, dura, blood, cerebrospinal fluid and multiple interfaces which scatter, absorb, and reflect the NIR to varying degrees. Hudson, Respond Systems, Inc. The power density of the beam is determined by the peak power generated by the laser, divided by the area of the focused beam. View at Google Scholar A. The emitter was set at
Laser Therapy Resesarch
The configuration of equipment shown in Fig. At least that is what the authors and the average reader would believe. Traumatic brain injury TBI and stroke are major sources of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Go to our Instructions for using RightsLink page for details. Cerebral ischemia and trauma — different etiologies yet similar mechanisms:
Physics and Physical Properties to consider when utilizing therapeutic laser energy
Although a true blackbody radiator is only theoretical, many materials behave in a similar manner when they are heated by an external energy source. Mitochondrial protection after traumatic brain injury by scavenging lipid peroxyl radicals. The Beam Gage laser beam analyzer software interfaces with the Ophir power sensor and CCD camera, collects real-time power results, and integrates them. Therefore, the size of the resulting coagulation zone associated with an incision with the tip is dependent on the exposure time of the "hot tip" to the tissue and the heat conduction from the tip to the tissue. YAG has the highest coefficient of absorption for water in the mid-infrared range, and correspondingly, the lowest depth of tissue penetration.
These measurements were replicated three times. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. Effective LLLT irradiation typically lasts from 20 sec up to a few minutes, but the LLLT time-profiles for skin penetration of light energy have not yet been investigated. The most determining factor is believed to be the presence of the black pigment protoporphyrin IX in P. YAG laser had a lesser effect on the bacteria found in deeper dentinal tubules, whereas the Nd: Photochemical effects are most responsible for anti-inflammatory, anti-edema, analgesic and bio-stimulation and regenerative effects.